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What is Vitamin D?
Vitamin D is an essential bone-building vitamin. Your body can absorb calcium — the primary component of bone — only when sufficient vitamin D is present. Vitamin D also supports muscles, nerves and the immune system.* Low levels of vitamin D are linked with a range of health risks and adverse consequences.* What are the dietary sources of vitamin D?
In the United States, most dietary vitamin D is obtained from fortified foods, such as breakfast cereals, milk and some yogurts. Some brands of orange juice, margarine and soy beverages also are fortified with vitamin D.
Very few foods naturally contain vitamin D, although there is a small amount of vitamin D in:
Should I consider taking Vitamin D?
- Fatty fish, such as salmon, tuna, herring, mackerel and sardines
- Beef liver
- Cod liver oil
- Egg yolks
- Some mushrooms
Vitamin D deficiency — defined as a vitamin D level below 20 nanograms per milliliter (ng/mL) — is relatively common in the United States. One large survey found that 42 percent of the population was deficient. Many experts believe that for optimal health, blood levels of vitamin D should be at least 30 ng/mL.
For many people, it's tough to get enough vitamin D. Direct exposure to sunlight is the most efficient source of vitamin D; however, depending on where you live and your lifestyle, sunlight can be difficult to come by in the winter. In warmer months, it's wise to avoid too much sun or block it with sunscreen. This is generally a smart move, but it means you won't get as much vitamin D from sunlight.
You could be at a higher risk of vitamin D deficiency if you:
- Engage in indoor athletics rather than sports that get you outside in the sun
- Have limited sun exposure for other reasons, such as clothing choices
- Have a hard time absorbing fats due to a health condition such as a chronic bowel disease or a surgical procedure such as a gastric bypass
- Rarely go out in sunlight or have limited sun exposure due to your occupation
- Live in the northern latitudes
- Have a darker skin tone, which can act as a natural sunscreen
- Regularly wear sunscreen with a sun protection factor (SPF) greater than 8
- Are an older adult (the risk of deficiency starts at around age 50 and increases with age)
- Are obese
A healthy diet might not be much help either. Because few foods naturally contain vitamin D, many people fall short of the recommended amount needed for good health. If you're not getting enough vitamin D in your diet, you can make up the difference with a dietary supplement.* An often-used blood test, which determines your 25-hydroxyvitamin D level, is the only way to know your vitamin D level for sure. Talk to a health care professional to determine if this blood test is right for you.
If you're at risk of vitamin D deficiency, a blood test may be warranted. If your vitamin D level is particularly low, you may need to take a higher amount of a dietary supplement.*